Wednesday, April 26, 2023


 Earth Day 2023 was on April 22. The earth faces tough challenges, especially global warming and climate change.


Global warming: increase in Earth's average surface temperature due to the release of greenhouse gases.
Climate change: long-term changes in the climate system, including changes in weather patterns as a result of global warning

2. History

  • 1824: Joseph Fourier describes the greenhouse effect, the process by which gases like methane and carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere trap and absorb heat, leading to warming of the planet's surface.

  • 1896: Svante Arrhenius calculates the effects of CO2 on global temperatures
  • 1938: Guy Stewart Callendar links CO2 emissions to rising temperatures
  • 1958: Charles David Keeling begins measuring CO2 concentrations
  • 1979: World Climate Conference acknowledges human influence on climate

3. The Present State of Climate Change

A. Impact of human activities on climate change
  • Fossil fuel combustion: major source of greenhouse gas emissions

  • Deforestation: loss of carbon sinks and biodiversity

  • Agriculture and livestock: methane emissions and land-use changes

B. Observed consequences
  • Global temperature increase: average of 1.2°C since preindustrial times
  • Extreme weather events: heatwaves, droughts, storms, and floods
  • Melting ice caps and glaciers: sea level rise and disruption to ecosystems
C. Current international efforts
  • 2015: Paris Agreement – global commitment to limit temperature rise
  • 2021: COP26 – renewed focus on climate finance and net-zero targets
  • Ongoing initiatives: renewable energy, reforestation, carbon capture

4. The Path Forward

  • Decarbonizing energy production: solar, wind, nuclear, and hydro
  • Electrifying transportation: electric vehicles and public transit
  • Enhancing energy efficiency: green buildings and smart grids

5. Conclusion:

  • The history of climate change research informs current understanding
  • Urgent need for collective global action to mitigate impacts
  • Continued innovation and collaboration necessary for a sustainable future


  1. Thank you so much for this effective summary, Kwei. There can't be enough reminders about this, or renewed efforts on our part. I try to do as much as I can on a daily basis, but this Earth Day and this post have made me committed to pushing more, politically-- more letters, more protests, more group action.

    1. Thank you, Wendall. Every day I try to do something that wastes less, if not eliminating it completely. Unfortunately, although it’s noble to do one’s part, the real work must be undertaken by leaders all over the world who turn a blind eye. From Ghana to Brazil, deforestation is proceeding at an alarming clip, accompanied by pollution of streams by the result of extractive industries.

  2. Your heart once again is in the right place, Kwei. Now if we can only get the decision makers heads to follow!

  3. A brief and effective summary, Kwei. As well as turning to more environment means of producing energy, we need to use less by insulating our homes and increasing the minimum standards of building regulations so that we all require less energy to be produced in the first place.